According to Western notions, space is three-dimensional and a four-dimensional world results from the addition of the time element to the spatial dimensions. In Japanese thought, however, space is composed of strictly two-dimensional facets. In other words, in Japan four-dimensional space is visualized as the result of combining two two-dimensional facets and two time measurements.
     The unique spatial perception of the Japanese has created a particularized sense of daily life, as well as forms of artistic expression that differ fundamentally from those of Western civilization. While in the West the space-time concept gave rise to absolutely fixed images of a homogenous and fixed continuum, as presented by Descartes, in Japan space and time were never fully separated but were conceived as correlative and omnipresent.
          (Arata Isosaki, MA: Space-Time in Japan, 1979 : New York: Cooper-Hewitt Museum. n.d.). p. 13)